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dc.creatorSANTOS, Geânderson dos-
dc.creator.Latteshttp://lattes.cnpq.br/9802861909589828por
dc.contributor.advisor1Rosenthal, Amauri-
dc.contributor.advisor1Latteshttp://lattes.cnpq.br/1329532290735502por
dc.contributor.advisor-co1Nogueira, Regina Isabel-
dc.contributor.advisor-co1Latteshttp://lattes.cnpq.br/8151244125777938por
dc.contributor.referee1Freitas, Daniela de Grandi Castro-
dc.contributor.referee2Walter, Eduardo Henrique Miranda-
dc.contributor.referee3Ferreira, Elisa Helena Rocha-
dc.contributor.referee4Tonon, Renata Valeriano-
dc.date.accessioned2019-01-04T16:26:50Z-
dc.date.issued2017-08-24-
dc.identifier.citationSANTOS, Geânderson dos. Secagem de iogurte por atomização ou liofilização: efeitos sobre viabilidade microbiana e características físicas, químicas e sensoriais. 2017. 143 f. Tese (Doutorado em Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos). Instituto de Tecnologia, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica, RJ, 2017.por
dc.identifier.urihttps://tede.ufrrj.br/jspui/handle/jspui/2557-
dc.description.resumoO iogurte é o leite fermentado mais consumido no mundo, reconhecido pelo seu valor nutricional e efeito benéfico à saúde, entretanto, sua vida útil é relativamente curta se comparado a outros derivados lácteos. Nesse contexto, a desidratação é uma tecnologia de conservação, redução de custos com armazenamento e transporte, bem como diversificação de produtos. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo estudar o processo de desidratação, estabilidade e características do iogurte em pó por liofilização ou atomização, de acordo com os requisitos legais do leite fermentado. Foram elaboradas formulações com lecitina (0,2; 0,4 e 0,6 %), goma arábica (0,2; 0,4 e 0,6 %) e maltodextrina (5, 10 e 15 %) e controle, de iogurte liofilizados e atomizados. Os ensaios foram realizados segundo delineamento composto central rotacional (DCCR) 2n, sendo n = 3 o número de variáveis independentes e três pontos centrais. Análises de solubilidade, colorimetria (luminosidade) e microbiológicas de contagens de Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus e Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus foram realizadas como variáveis respostas. Posteriormente, foram caracterizadas duas amostras liofilizadas, L1 (sem aditivos) e L2 com aditivos (15 % de maltodextrina e 0.6 % de Goma arábica) e duas amostras atomizadas, A1 (sem aditivos) e A2 com aditivos (15 % de maltodextrina e 0,6 % de Goma arábica), sendo realizadas análises físicas (molhabilidade, solubilidade, tamanho de partícula, colorimetria, reológicas, isotermas de sorção e atividade de água), químicas de composição centesimal, perfil de ácidos graxos, teor de acetaldeído, perfil eletroforético das proteínas e microbiológicas de contagem de bactérias lácticas, após o processamento e durante o armazenamento em temperaturas de refrigeração e ambiente. Também foram realizadas análises sensoriais de aceitação utilizando-se escala hedônica de 9 pontos e caracterização das amostras de iogurte reidratadas por meio da metodologia de questões Check All That Apply (CATA). Os aditivos influenciaram positivamente a preservação das células de Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus durante o processo de desidratação, porém a maltodextrina e a lecitina colaboraram com a diminuição da contagem de células de Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus. Os parâmetros de sorção das amostras de iogurte em pó foram mais bem ajustados ao modelo de Gugghenheim, Anderson e de Boer (GAB) e as características reológicas das amostras reidratadas de iogurte em pó se ajustaram aos modelos de Ostwald-de-Waele e Herschel-Bulkley. As amostras processadas apresentaram menor aceitação do que as amostras natural e comercial. No entanto, as amostras liofilizadas apresentaram boa aceitação, sendo caracterizadas como homogêneas, sabor doce e característico de iogurte. As amostras atomizadas apresentaram baixa aceitação, sendo caracterizadas como amareladas, sabor amanteigado, gordurosas e homogêneas. Tanto as amostras atomizadas quanto as liofilizadas resultaram em conformidade com os padrões exigidos pela legislação brasileira, tendo o processo de liofilização se mostrado mais eficiente, tanto na preservação das bactérias lácticas, quanto na retenção de acetaldeído, principal composto aromático do iogurte. A atomização e a liofilização conservaram a viabilidade das bactérias lácticas acima do recomendado pela legislação brasileira, por mais de 150 dias quando armazenado a 6 ºC. No armazenamento a 30 ºC, a viabilidade foi de aproximadamente 45 dias para amostras atomizadas e até 120 dias para amostras liofilizadas. Todas as amostras apresentaram viabilidade de bactérias lácticas por tempos de IX armazenamento superiores ao do iogurte tradicional, o que confirma ambos os métodos de secagem como alternativas para conservação do iogurte.por
dc.description.abstractYogurt is the most consumed fermented milk in the world, recognized for its nutritional value and beneficial effect to health. However, its shelf life is relatively short compared to other dairy products. In this context, dehydration arises as an alternative for conservation, reduction of costs with storage and transportation, as well as diversification of the product niche. Therefore, the present work aims to develop yogurt powder by freeze drying or spray drying, within the parameters pre-established by Brazilian legislation for fermented milk. Formulations were prepared with lecithin (0.2, 0.4 and 0.6%), gum arabic (0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 %) and maltodextrin (5, 10 and 15 %). We performed the tests according to a central composite rotatable design (CCRD) 2n, with n = 3 as the number of independent variables and 3 central points. We also performed analyses of solubility, colorimetry (luminosity) and microbiological analyses of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus counts as response variables. Afterwards, 2 freeze dried samples, L1 (without additives) and L2 (with additives 15 % of maltodextrin and 0.6 % of gum arabic) and 2 spray dried ones, A1 (without additives) and A2 (with additives 15 % of maltodextrin and 0.6 % of gum arabic), were characterized by some analyses, such as: physical (wettability, solubility,sorption isotherms, rheological and colorimetry and Aw) centesimal composition, fatty acid profile, acetaldehyde content, electrophoretic profile of proteins and microbiological counting of lactic acid bacteria, after processing and during storage in cooling and ambient temperatures. In addition, sensory analysis on the acceptance and characterization of rehydrated yogurt samples using a 9-point hedonic scale and the Check All That Apply (CATA) methodology were also performed. The additives positively influenced the preservation of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus cells during the dehydration process, while maltodextrin and lecithin collaborated to decrease Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus cells. The sorption parameters of the yogurt powder samples were better adjusted to the Gugghenheim, Anderson and BOER (GAB) model. The rheological data of the rehydrated samples were adjusted to the Ostwald-de-Waele and Herschel-Bulkley models. The samples processed showed less acceptance than the natural and commercial samples. However, the freeze dried samples presented good acceptance. They were characterized as creamy, homogeneous and with characteristic yogurt flavor. The spray dried samples showed low acceptance. They were characterized as yellowish, buttery, fatty, creamy and homogeneous. Both the freeze dried and spray dried samples were in compliance with the standards required by Brazilian legislation, but the freeze drying process was shown to be more efficient, both in the preservation of lactic acid bacteria and in the retention of acetaldehyde, the main aromatic compound of yogurt. Spray drying and freeze drying preserved the viability of lactic acid bacteria above that recommended by the Brazilian legislation for more than 150 days when stored at 6 ºC. When stored at 30 °C, the bacterial viability was 45 days for spray dried samples and 75 days for freeze dried ones. All samples showed viability of lactic acid bacteria for storage times much longer than the traditional yogurt, which confirms that both drying methods are efficient for yogurt preservation.eng
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dc.languageporpor
dc.publisherUniversidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiropor
dc.publisher.departmentInstituto de Tecnologiapor
dc.publisher.countryBrasilpor
dc.publisher.initialsUFRRJpor
dc.publisher.programPrograma de Pós-Graduação em Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentospor
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dc.rightsAcesso Abertopor
dc.subjectBactérias Lácticaspor
dc.subjectDesidrataçãopor
dc.subjectArmazenamentopor
dc.subjectAditivospor
dc.subjectAceitaçãopor
dc.subjectLactic acid Bacteriaeng
dc.subjectDehydrationeng
dc.subjectStorageeng
dc.subjectAdditiveseng
dc.subjectAcceptanceeng
dc.subject.cnpqCiências Agráriaspor
dc.titleSecagem de iogurte por atomização ou liofilização: efeitos sobre viabilidade microbiana e características físicas, químicas e sensoriaispor
dc.title.alternativeProcessing of yogurt powder by spray drying or freeze drying: effects on microbial viability and on physical, chemical and sensory characteristicseng
dc.typeTesepor
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